Disabilities and Medical Conditions

Guides and information on health and medical conditions that may lead to disability and chronic illness

See also: Mental Health Disabilities and Issues – Menu

Focus on Disability - For Disabled People, the Elderly and their Carers in the UK

Acid Reflux (Gord) – Heartburn – A Guide

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a common condition, where acid from the stomach leaks up into the oesophagus (gullet). The ...
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Acne Vulgaris – A Guide

Acne is a common skin condition that causes spots and pimples to develop on the skin, usually on the face, ...
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Alcohol Misuse – Dependence – A Guide

Alcohol misuse means drinking excessively and more than the recommended limits. People with alcohol dependence have an excessive desire to ...
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Allergies – Environmental – A Guide

Allergy is the word used to describe an adverse (bad) reaction that the body has to a particular substance in ...
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Amputation (Surgical) – A Guide

An amputation is the surgical removal of part of the body, usually a leg or an arm causing disability Introduction ...
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Anaemia – Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia and folate deficiency anaemia causing the body to produce abnormally large red blood cells. Tiredness, fatigue ...
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Angina Pectoris – A Guide

Angina Pectoris is a syndrome that is caused when the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart becomes restricted causing ...
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Ankylosing Spondylitis – A Guide

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of chronic (long-term) arthritis that affects parts of the spine, including the bones, muscles ...
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Aphasia – A Guide

Aphasia is a language disorder where people have problems speaking and writing and also understanding both the spoken and written ...
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Arrhythmia – A Guide

A cardiac arrhythmia is the medical term for an irregular heartbeat or abnormal heart rhythm. Overview Arrhythmias or heart rhythm ...
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Arthritis – A Guide

A Guide to Arthritic Conditions including links to types, treatment, physiotherapy, diet, occupational therapy, aids and equipment. All Arthritic conditions ...
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Asthma – A Guide

Asthma is caused by inflammation of the airways, a long-term condition, which can cause  cough, wheeze and breathlessness. The severity ...
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Atherosclerosis – A Guide

Atherosclerosis is a potentially serious condition where the body’s medium and large arteries become clogged up by fatty substances, such ...
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Atopic Eczema – A Guide

Atopic eczema is the most common form of eczema. Also called atopic dermatitis, it mainly affects children, but can also ...
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Autism – Asperger Syndrome

A lifelong developmental disability, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition that affects social interaction, communication, interests and behaviour. Asperger ...
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Back Pain – A Guide

Back pain is a common condition that affects most people at some point during their life. Most cases of back ...
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Breast Cancer (Female) – A Guide

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK. About 46,000 women get breast cancer in the UK each ...
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Brittle Bone Disease – A Guide

The disease osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), more commonly known as brittle bone disease, is a congenital disease causing bone fractures in ...
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Bronchitis – A Guide

Bronchitis is an infection of the main airways of the lungs (bronchi), which causes them to become inflamed. It is ...
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Bunion – Hallux Valgus – A Guide

A bunion is a bony swelling at the base of the big toe. The medical name for a bunion is ...
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Burns and Scalds – A Guide

The damage to the human body caused by burns and scalds can range in severity from a mildly annoying injury ...
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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome – A Guide

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a relatively common condition that causes pain, numbness and a burning or tingling sensation in ...
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Cerebral Palsy – A Guide

Neurological damage to a child’s brain causes cerebral palsy, which normally occurs before, during or soon after birth. Types Symptoms ...
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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – A Guide

Causing long-term tiredness (fatigue) – chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) affects everyday life. It does not go away with sleep or ...
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

A Guide to Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the name for a collection of lung diseases including chronic bronchitis, emphysema ...
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Club Foot – A Guide

Club foot is a deformed ankle and foot and is present at birth. The ankle is twisted and the foot ...
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Constipation – A Guide

Affecting people of all ages, constipation is a very common condition. It can mean that you are not passing stools ...
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Coronary Heart Disease – A Guide

Coronary heart disease is the UK’s biggest killer, with one in every four men and one in every six women ...
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Crohn’s Disease – A Guide

A chronic (long-term) condition, Crohn’s disease causes inflammation of the lining of the digestive system. Introduction Symptoms Causes Diagnosing Treating ...
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Cystic Fibrosis – A Guide

Cystic fibrosis is a common inherited disease. It affects over 8,500 children and young adults in the UK, where five ...
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Deafblindness – A Guide

Deafblindness is a term that describes a number of conditions involving both vision and hearing problems Introduction Symptoms of deafblindness ...
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Deafness – Hearing Problems

Information and advice for people who are deaf or have hearing problems. Organisations and charities offering help. Your GP, your ...
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Deep Vein Thrombosis – A Guide

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in one of the deep veins in the body. It can lead ...
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Dehydration – A Guide

Dehydration is a condition that occurs when the loss of body fluids, mostly water, is more than amount that is taken ...
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Diabetes – A Guide

Diabetes can lead to disabling conditions because the body does not produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone ...
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Diarrhoea – A Guide

Diarrhoea is passing looser or more frequent stools than is normal for you. You may get diarrhoea after being in contact with someone else who has ...
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Double Vision – A Guide

Double vision (its medical term is diplopia) is seeing two images of a single object. The two images may be ...
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Down’s Syndrome – A Guide

Down’s syndrome is a genetic disorder that was named after John Langdon Down, the doctor who first recognised it as ...
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Dyslexia – A Guide

Dyslexia, or developmental reading disorder, is characterized by difficulty with learning to read fluently and with accurate comprehension despite normal ...
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Dysphagia – A Guide

Dysphagia is a medical term that is used to refer to difficulties with swallowing. Some people with dysphagia have problems ...
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Ehlers-Danlos syndrome – A Guide

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is commonly described as a collection of inherited conditions that fit into a larger group, known as ...
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Fainting – A Guide

Fainting is a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness that usually results in a fall. Consciousness is usually regained within a ...
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Fibromyalgia – A Guide

Fibromyalgia, also called fibromyalgia syndrome, is a long-term condition that causes pain all over the body. Introduction Symptoms of fibromyalgia ...
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Food Allergy – A Guide

A food allergy is when the immune system experiences an adverse reaction to specific proteins found in food. It can ...
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Food Poisoning – A Guide

Food poisoning is an illness caused by eating contaminated food. Usually not serious, most people get better within a few ...
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Glandular Fever – A Guide

Glandular fever mostly affects teenagers and young adults. It gets better without treatment, but it can make you feel very ...
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Glaucoma – A Guide

A group of eye conditions, glaucoma affects vision. It often affects both eyes, usually in varying degrees. One eye may ...
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Gout – A Guide

Gout is a common type of arthritis. The symptoms of gout include painful swelling and inflammation in one or more ...
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Haemorrhoids (piles) – A Guide

Also known as piles, haemorrhoids are enlarged and swollen blood vessels in or around the lower rectum and anus. Solid ...
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Hair Loss – Alopecia – A Guide

Alopecia is the general medical term for hair loss. There are many types of hair loss with different symptoms and causes ...
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Hangover – A Guide

A hangover is the unpleasant symptoms you suffer when you drink too much alcohol and the intoxicating effect of the ...
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Hay Fever – Allergic Rhinitis – A Guide

Hay fever is a type of allergic rhinitis (inflammation of the nose) caused by the allergen ‘pollen’ with symptoms including ...
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Headaches – A Guide

Many people in the UK get headaches regularly, making them one of the most common health issues Tension Headaches Migraines ...
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Heart Attack – A Guide

A heart attack (medically called a myocardial infarction) is a serious medical emergency in which the supply of blood to ...
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Heart Palpitations – A Guide

Heart palpitations are heartbeats that suddenly become more noticeable. Although alarming they are usually harmless Overview With palpitations your heart ...
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Hepatitis – A Guide

Hepatitis is a medical condition defined by inflammation and swelling of the liver that can occur as the result of ...
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Hernia – A Guide

A hernia is when an internal part of the body, such as an organ, pushes through a weakness in the ...
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High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

A guide to high blood pressure, also known as hypertension, usually defined as having a sustained blood pressure of 140/90mmHg ...
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High Cholesterol – A Guide

Cholesterol is a fatty substance known as a lipid. Made by the liver from the fatty foods we eat, it ...
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Hip Replacement – A Guide

A hip replacement is a surgical procedure to replace your hip joint with an artificial version. It provides a long-term ...
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HIV and AIDS – A Guide

HIV is a virus (human immunodeficiency virus) that attacks the immune system, and weakens your ability to fight infections and ...
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Huntington’s Disease – A Guide

Huntington’s disease is an inherited disease of the brain, for which there is no cure. Introduction Symptoms of Huntington’s disease ...
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Impotence – Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to get and maintain an erection that is sufficient for satisfactory sexual intercourse. ED ...
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Incontinence – Urinary and Fecal

A guide to urinary and fecal incontinence coping strategies and management. Information, Advice and Sources of Help for sufferers, disabled ...
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Infertility – A Guide

Infertility is when a couple, despite having regular unprotected sex do not conceive (get pregnant). Figures show that one in ...
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Insomnia – A Guide

Insomnia is difficulty getting to sleep or staying asleep for long enough to feel refreshed the next morning. This happens ...
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Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) – A Guide

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic (long-term) disorder that affects the digestive system. It causes abdominal pain, diarrhoea and ...
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Kidney Infection- A Guide

A kidney infection usually occurs when a bacterial infection (typically e-coli bacteria) moves up from the bladder or urethra and ...
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Knee Replacement Surgery – A Guide

In knee replacement surgery (arthroplasty), a damaged, worn or diseased knee is replaced with an artificial joint. Introduction Why knee ...
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Learning Disabilities – Resources

Local authorities, the NHS and voluntary organisations work to help people with learning disabilities to achieve more of their potential ...
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Loss of libido – Sex Drive

See also: Low Male Libido – Sex Drive Products Overview While the desire to have sex and ability to attain ...
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Lung Cancer – A Guide

Lung cancer is one of the most common and serious types of cancer Introduction Symptoms of lung cancer Causes of ...
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Lupus – A Guide

Lupus erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs when your body’s immune system attacks your own tissues and organs ...
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Macular Degeneration – A Guide

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a painless eye condition, usually in both eyes, that causes you to lose central vision ...
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Mesothelioma and Asbestos – A Guide

Asbestos is a known carcinogen, and many old buildings include asbestos in the walls, ceilings, and floors. It is a ...
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Migraine – A Guide

A migraine is a severe headache usually felt as a throbbing pain at the front or on one side of ...
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Motor Neurone Disease – A Guide

Motor neurone disease (MND) is a rare, serious and incurable condition where over time, the nerves in the brain and ...
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Multiple Sclerosis – A Guide

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurological condition in young adults in the UK, affecting around 85,000 people. Introduction ...
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Muscular Dystrophy – A Guide

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a genetic (inherited) condition that over time gradually causes the muscles to weaken. This leads to ...
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Obesity – A Guide

Obesity is when a person is carrying too much body fat for their height and sex. A person is considered ...
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Oedema – A Guide

Oedema is the medical term for fluid retention in the body. It was formerly known as dropsy or hydropsy and ...
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Osteoarthritis – A Guide

Osteoarthritis is a condition that affects the joints. It is the most common type of arthritis in the UK, with ...
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Osteoporosis – A Guide

Osteoporosis is a condition that affects the bones, causing them to become weak and fragile and more likely to break ...
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Overactive Thyroid – A Guide

Overactive thyroid, also known as hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, is a condition that occurs when there is too much thyroid hormone ...
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Paralysis – A Guide

Paralysis is the loss of the ability to move one or more muscles. It may be associated with loss of feeling ...
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Parkinson’s Disease – A Guide

The long-term chronic neurological condition Parkinson’s disease affects around 120,000 people in the UK Introduction Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease Causes ...
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Pneumonia – A Guide

Pneumonia is swelling (inflammation) of the tissue in one or both of your lungs which is usually caused by an ...
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Pressure Ulcers and Pressure Area Care

A guide to pressure ulcers known also as pressure sores, or bed sores. They occur when the skin and underlying ...
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Psoriasis – A Guide

Psoriasis is a skin condition that causes red, flaky, crusty patches of skin covered with silvery scales. The condition is ...
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Radiotherapy – A Guide

Commonly used to treat cancer, radiotherapy is a treatment involving the use of precisely targeted high-energy radiation History and Overview ...
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Restless Leg Syndrome – A Guide

Also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, restless legs syndrome is a common condition of the nervous system that causes an overwhelming, ...
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Rheumatoid Arthritis – A Guide

Rheumatoid arthritis is a condition that causes pain and swelling in the joints. Hands, feet and wrists are commonly affected, ...
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Sciatica – A Guide

Sciatica is the name given to any sort of pain that is caused by irritation or compression of the sciatic ...
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Scoliosis – A Guide

Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine to one side. In people with the condition, the spine bends either ...
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Sexually Transmitted Infections or STIs – A Guide

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by infections passed from one person ...
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Shingles – A Guide

Shingles is an infection of a nerve and the area of skin around it. It is caused by the herpes ...
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Sickle Cell Disease – A Guide

Sickle cell disease affects the red blood cells and is the name for a group of inherited conditions. Sickle cell ...
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Sinusitis – A Guide

Sinusitis is a condition where the lining of the sinuses becomes inflamed. It’s usually caused by a viral infection and ...
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Sleep Apnea – A Guide

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a condition where the walls of the throat relax and narrow during sleep, interrupting normal ...
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Spina Bifida – A Guide

Spina bifida is a term that is used to refer to a series of birth defects that affect the development ...
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Sports Injuries – A Guide

Injuries and disability caused by sporting activities and exercising Introduction Symptoms of sports injuries Causes of sports injuries Treating sports ...
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Stammering and Speech Impediment

Stammering, or stuttering, is a speech impediment and problem relatively common which occurs in childhood and can persist into adulthood ...
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Stroke – A Guide

A stroke is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is disturbed. Introduction Symptoms ...
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Tennis Elbow – A Guide

Tennis elbow is a painful condition that often occurs as a result of strenuous overuse of the muscles and tendons ...
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Tinnitus – A Guide

Tinnitus is the medical name for the perception of noise in one ear, both ears or in the head. The ...
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Tourette syndrome (TS) – A Guide

Tourette syndrome (also called Tourette’s syndrome) is a neurological condition that affects the brain and nervous system. It is characterised ...
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Transient ischaemic attack (TIA)

A transient ischaemic attack (TIA), or ‘mini-stroke’, is a temporary fall in the blood supply to part of the brain ...
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Underactive Thyroid – A Guide

A Guide to Hypothyroidism which means a low level of thyroid hormone (called thyroxine, or T4) in the blood. The ...
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Varicose Veins – A Guide

Varicose veins are swollen and enlarged veins that usually occur on the legs and are usually blue or dark purple in ...
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Vertigo – A Guide

Vertigo is the sensation that you or the environment around you is moving or spinning.  It is commonly caused by ...
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Whiplash Injury – A Guide

A traumatic neck injury, whiplash is caused by a sudden movement of the head forwards, backwards or sideways. It often ...
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